39 Michael Kofman, “Towards a Sinorusse Agreement?”, Riddle, November 29, 2019. www.ridl.io/en/towards-a-sino-russian-entente/. As a general rule, detained illegal border workers must be repatriated to their country of origin within 7 days of their arrest (Article 34).  On 21 March 1969, Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin attempted to call Mao to talk about a ceasefire.  The Chinese operator, who accepted Kosygin`s reputation rather rudely, called it a “revisionist element” and hung on.  Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai, who wanted to accept Kosygin`s ceasefire offer, was shocked by what he saw as Mao`s recklessness: “The two countries are at war, you can`t hack the messenger.”  On 22 March, diplomats from the Soviet Embassy in Beijing tried unsuccessfully to learn of Mao`s private telephone number so that Kosygin could call him to talk about peace.  On 22 March 1969, Mao met with the four marshals who commanded the troops in the border areas with the Soviet Union to begin preparing for a possible war.  Zhou repeatedly asked Mao to discuss a ceasefire, but also accepted Mao`s refusal to make phone calls from Kosygin.  To appease Zhou, Mao told him: “Immediately ready to conduct diplomatic negotiations.”  Kutuzov is the largest island along the Ussuri. Among the ancient Chinese possessions, it was known as Daxitong dao.
During the Manchukuo period, control was transferred to the Soviet Union. Under the terms of the agreement, the island remained in Russia`s possession. As the islands of the Argun, Amur and Ussuri rivers often divide the rivers into several streams, the position of the main current (and therefore the border) was often not immediately visible. Of course, each country would benefit from a greater number of islands if the recognized main canal was closer to the opposite bank. For example, demarcation work has often been controversial and local protests against disputed areas. Demarcation work continued almost until the 1997 deadline. The two nations will complete their own approval procedures for the agreement as soon as possible, the Foreign Ministry said. Between the 1950s and the late 1980s, the Soviet Union and China had border disputes and competed for the communist leadership during the Cold War. Strengthening security cooperation also has implications for Russian-Chinese relations in Central Asia. Bilateral military cooperation also includes some CIS countries and Russia participates from the outset in China`s military cooperation with Central Asian countries. However, in recent years, there have been several examples of security cooperation without direct Russian involvement. The 2019 cooperation was the latest in a series of joint Sino-Tajik counter-terrorism exercises and training that took place in 2006, 2015 and 2016 respectively in the Central Asian country.
A similar joint exercise, of the same name, was organized by the Chinese People`s Police (PAP) and the Kyrgyz National Guard. About 150 Kyrgyz forces participated in the counter-terrorism exercise in the suburbs of Urumqi, capital of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China. In 2018, the Vice-President of China`s Central Military Commission, Xu Qiliang, said the two countries had strengthened their military exchanges, enriched cooperation and improved mutual military trust, adding that cooperation within the framework of the CSO had been successful and that it had played an important role in ensuring the security and stability of both countries and Central Asia as a whole.